Climate of India during 2020
The Climate Research and Services (CRS) of the India Meteorological Department (IMD) has issued a Statement on Climate of India during 2020.
- The annual mean land surface air temperature averaged over India during 2020 was above normal. During the year, annual mean land surface air temperature averaged over the country was+0.290C above normal (based on the data of 1981-2010). The year 2020 was the eighth warmest year on record since nation-wide records commenced in 1901.
- The Global mean surface temperature anomaly during 2020 (January to October as per WMO state of the global climate) is +1.20C.
- The 2020 annual rainfall over the country as a whole was 109% of its Long Period Average (LPA) based on the data of 1961-2010.
- The 2020 annual mean land surface air temperature for the country was +0.290C above the 1981-2010 period average, thus making the year 2020 as the eighth warmest year on record since 1901.
- The country averaged seasonal mean temperatures were also above the average during all the seasons except pre-monsoon season.
- The country averaged mean monthly temperatures were warmer than the normal during all the months of the year except March and June.
Tropical Storms in the Indian Seas
- During 2020, 5 cyclones formed over the North Indian Ocean.
- These are Super cyclonic Storm AMPHAN, Very Severe Cyclonic Storms NIVAR & GATI, Severe Cyclonic Storm NISARGA, and Cyclonic Storm ‘BUREVI’.
- Of these, NISARGA & GATI formed over Arabian Sea, while the remaining 3 cyclones viz. AMPHAN, NIVAR & BUREVI formed over the Bay of Bengal.
- Out of these five most devastating cyclones, the Super Cyclonic Storm AMPHAN formed in the pre-monsoon season and crossed West Bengal coast over Sundarbans on 20th May.
- It claimed 90 lives & about 4,000 livestock mainly in West Bengal. The Severe Cyclonic Storm NISARGA, formed in the Monsoon season, crossed Maharashtra coast on 3rd June claimed 4 lives & 2000 livestock in Maharashtra.
- The remaining three cyclones viz.NIVAR, BUREVI & GATI formed during the post monsoon season. The Very Severe Cyclonic Storm NIVAR crossed Tamil Nadu & Puducherry coasts close to north of Puducherry and claimed 12 lives & 10836 livestock in Tamil Nadu & Andhra Pradesh.
- The Cyclonic Storm BUREVI claimed 9 lives & 200 livestock in Tamil Nadu.
- The VSCS “GATI” made landfall over Somalia coast.
- All these weather systems and their remnants and other low-pressure systems caused above normal rainfall over central and peninsular India.
- The tracks of these cyclones formed during the year are shown in figure 3 (a) and3(b).
High Impact Weather Events
The country also experienced other high impact weather events like, extremely heavy rainfall, floods, landslide, thunderstorm, lightning, cold waves, etc.
- Bihar & Uttar Pradesh were the most adversely affected states during the year which reportedly claimed more than 350 deaths from each state mainly due to thunderstorm, lightning & cold wave events.
- Heavy rainfall & flood related incidents reportedly claimed over 600 lives from different parts of the country during pre-monsoon, monsoon & post-monsoon seasons.
- Of these, 129 lives were reportedly claimed from Assam, 72 from Kerala [Specifically, 65 persons reportedly claimed dead in a single day from Pettimudi in Munnar, Idukki district of Kerala on 7th August due to landslide.], 61 from Telangana (while, 59 lives reportedly claimed only during the period 1st to 20th October), 54 lives from Bihar, 50 from Maharashtra, 48 Uttar Pradesh, & 38 from Himachal Pradesh.
Swasth Vayu Non-invasive Ventilator
CSIR-NAL scientists along with medical professionals from CSIR-IGIB came forward to address the shortages of ventilators in the beginning of the Covid-19 pandemic and indigenously designed and developed the non-invasivebilevel positive airway pressureventilator –SwasthVayu, with additional features to treat Covid-19 patients and make the country self-reliant.
SwasthVayu developed by CSIR-NAL is a microcontroller based precise closed-loop adaptive control system with a built-in biocompatible “3D printed manifold and coupler” with HEPA filter (Highly Efficient Particulate Air Filter). These unique features help to alleviate the fear of the virus spread.
Ammoniacal nitrogen in river Yamuna
- The Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) convened a meeting on January 04, with the officials of Delhi Pollution Control Committee(DPCC), Haryana State Pollution Control Board (HSPCB), Delhi Jal Board (DJB), Irrigation & Water Resources Department, Haryana and Irrigation and Flood Control Department, Delhi, to discuss the recurring issue of increase in Ammonical Nitrogen in River Yamuna and short and long term remedial actions required.
- A study group comprising Delhi Jal Board (DJB), Haryana State Pollution Control Board, Delhi Pollution Control Committee, Irrigation and Water Resources Department, Haryana, Irrigation and Flood Control Department, Delhi has been constituted.
- The group will reviewuniform monitoring protocol and requirement of strengthening monitoring mechanism, analyse past data and carry out field survey to identify critical hotspots as well as period of high anomia levels.
- It has also been asked to suggest short and long term measures for sustained solutions, and submit its report within a month.
Blue Economy is going to be an important source of Aatamnirbhar Bharat: PM
The Prime Minister, Narendra Modi has said that the development of the coastal areas and welfare of hardworking fishermen is one of the important priority of the Government.
- He outlined a multi-pronged plan for coastal area development comprising transforming the blue economy, improvement of coastal infrastructure and protecting the marine ecosystem.
- He was speaking after dedicating Kochi – Mangaluru Natural Gas Pipeline to the Nation through a video conference today.
- The Prime Minister touched upon the fisherman communities in the coastal areas who are not only dependent on the ocean wealth but also are the guardian of the same.
- For this, the Government has taken many steps to protect and enrich the coastal ecosystem. Coastal infrastructure is being improved to meet the demand of the rising needs and aspirations.
- Steps like helping fishermen with deep sea fishing, separate fisheries department, providing affordable loans and Kisan Credit Cards to the people engaged in aquaculture are helping both entrepreneurs and general fishermen.
- The Prime Minister also talked of the recently launched 20 thousand crore MatasyaSamapadaYojna which will directly benefit lacs of fishermen in Kerala and Karnataka. India is progressing rapidly in the fishery related exports.